This post is the fourth in a series of six, reporting the results of The State of Homophobia, Biphobia & Transphobia survey I conducted at the start of 2017[i].
In all, 1,672 lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, intersex and queer (LGBTIQ) Australians provided valid responses to that survey.
In this article, I will be focusing on their answers to four questions, asking whether they have experienced discrimination in education, whether this discrimination occurred in the past 12 months, whether this discrimination related to religious schools or colleges and to provide an example of the discrimination that they experienced.
The responses to these questions confirm that discrimination in education remains far-too-common for far-too-many LGBTIQ Australians – instead of learning about maths and science and English, and above all about the world around them, young LGBTIQ people are learning what it feels like to encounter discrimination on the basis of their sexual orientation, gender identity and intersex status.
The question about whether any of this discrimination occurred in relation to a religious school or college is important because, as we have seen previously[ii], exceptions to anti-discrimination laws mean these bodies can lawfully discriminate against LGBTIQ students and teachers in the vast majority of states and territories[iii].
I also encourage you to read the full range of examples provided in response to question four, which demonstrate just how widespread anti-LGBTIQ discrimination in education is, and just how much work is needed to make sure places of learning are not places of prejudice.
Question 1: Have you ever experienced discrimination because of your sexual orientation, gender identity or intersex status in relation to education (including as a student, teacher or parent)?
Question 2: Has one of more instances of education-related discrimination occurred in the past 12 months?
Question 3: Did any of this education-related discrimination occur at a religious school or college?
The overall results to these three questions make for sobering reading.
Of the 1,636 people who answered the first question, 663 – or 41% – said they had experienced education-related discrimination at some point in their lives.
Disturbingly, 236 survey respondents[iv] reported experiencing anti-LGBTIQ discrimination in education in the past 12 months alone. That is 14.4% of the total, or 1 in every 7 people who completed the survey.
Perhaps most concerning of all, 242 lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, intersex and queer people, or 14.8% of the entire survey cohort, reported being discriminated against at a religious school or college[v] – for most of these people, that discrimination would have been permissible under Australian law.
It is clear that, in 2017, there is still too much anti-LGBTIQ prejudice in Australian educational institutions. As we shall see below, this discrimination also affects some demographic groups within the LGBTIQ community more than others.
There were some significant differences in reported education-related discrimination between lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, intersex and queer survey respondents:
- 41.9%[vi] reported education-related discrimination at some point
- 14.9%[vii] experienced at least one instance in the last 12 months
- 10.9%[viii] experienced discrimination at a religious school or college
- 37.6%[ix] reported education-related discrimination at some point
- 9.4%[x] experienced at least one instance in the last 12 months
- 13.8%[xi] experienced discrimination at a religious school or college
- 39.8%[xii] reported education-related discrimination at some point
- 16.6%[xiii] experienced at least one instance in the last 12 months
- 16.6% experienced discrimination at a religious school or college
- 52%[xiv] reported education-related discrimination at some point
- 25.2%[xv] experienced at least one instance in the last 12 months
- 16.8%[xvi] experienced discrimination at a religious school or college
- 73.3%[xvii] reported education-relation discrimination at some point
- 33.3%[xviii] experienced at least one instance in the last 12 months
- 26.7%[xix] experienced discrimination at a religious school or college
- 46.6%[xx] reported education-related discrimination at some point
- 22.2%[xxi] experienced at least one instance in the last 12 months
- 17%[xxii] experienced discrimination at a religious school or college
In terms of sexual orientation, the results were fairly similar – approximately 2 in every 5 lesbian, gay and bisexual respondents reported discrimination in education at some point in their lives.
Gay people were the least likely – out of all groups – to report education-related discrimination in the past year (less than 1 in 10), with lesbians reporting rates about the overall average (14.9%) and bisexuals slightly higher again. In contrast, gay people were more likely than lesbians to report discrimination at religious schools or colleges (although once again, both were lower than bisexuals at 16.6%).
As with previous survey results, however, the biggest consequences of education-related discrimination were felt by trans, intersex and queer survey respondents. The intersex responses are particularly high, with almost three-quarters experiencing education-related discrimination at some point in their lives (while noting the small sample size, n=15).
Queer respondents were also more likely than average to report education-related discrimination at some point in their lives, and also during the past 12 months (in respect to the latter, more than 50% more likely than non-queer respondents), although their reported rates of discrimination at religious schools was only slightly above average.
The trans responses warrant particular attention, especially given the large sample size (n=369) featured in this study. More than half had experienced education-related discrimination at some point in their lives, while more than a quarter had experienced such discrimination in the past 12 months alone – these rates are simply extraordinary (and, of course, appalling)[xxiii].
There was also some divergence within the trans community, depending on whether the respondent was also lesbian, gay, bisexual or queer:
Trans and lesbian: 41.9% reporting discrimination ever, 16.3% in the last year[xxiv]
Trans and gay: 59.6% reporting discrimination ever, 24.6% in the last year[xxv]
Trans and bisexual: 53.7% reporting discrimination ever, 28.5% in the last year[xxvi]
Trans and queer: 52.7% reporting discrimination ever, 27.4% in the last year[xxvii].
Survey respondents who were both trans and gay therefore reported much higher rates of discrimination during their lives, although trans and bisexual and trans and queer respondents were more likely to have been discriminated against in the last 12 months. Interestingly, trans and lesbian respondents reported lower rates for both answers.
Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander People
Depressingly, the rates of discrimination for Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander LGBTIQ people were higher for all three questions than for their non-Indigenous counterparts:
- 50%[xxviii] experienced education-related discrimination at some point (compared to 40.2% of non-Indigenous people)
- 19%[xxix] experienced at least one instance in the past 12 months (compared to 14.3% of non-Indigenous people) and
- 22.4%[xxx] experienced discrimination at a religious school or college (compared to 14.5% of non-Indigenous people).
The high rates of Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander people reporting discrimination in 2016, and also at religious institutions (which, for the most part, are free to discriminate against them), are particularly worrying.
Given younger people are more likely to have been engaged in education in the past 12 months, and therefore more likely to have experienced recent education-related discrimination, this analysis will exclude answers to the second question.
What is most noticeable about the answers to questions 1 and 3 is that discrimination in this context appears to be getting worse for younger LGBTIQ people, rather than getting better:
Aged 24 and under
- 43.3%[xxxi] experienced education-related discrimination at some point
- 17.4%[xxxii] reported discrimination at a religious school or college
25 to 44
- 39.4%[xxxiii] experienced education-related discrimination at some point
- 14.2%[xxxiv] reported discrimination at a religious school or college
45 to 64
- 37.1%[xxxv] experienced education-related discrimination at some point
- 9.1%[xxxvi] reported discrimination at a religious school or college
65 and over
- 17.1%[xxxvii] experienced education-related discrimination at some point
- 5.7%[xxxviii] reported discrimination at a religious school or college
In short, people aged 24 and under are more likely to have already experienced discrimination in relation to education than their older LGBTIQ counterparts[xxxix] – even including many who are currently engaged in school, university or TAFE and may still confront homophobia, biphobia, transphobia or intersexphobia prior to completing their studies.
This statistic is frankly unacceptable (and alone demonstrates the need for nation-wide anti-bullying programs like Safe Schools).
Young people were also far more likely to report anti-LGBTIQ discrimination in religious schools or colleges than LGBTIQ people aged 25 to 44, or 45 to 64. There are a few possible explanations for this, including the growing trend towards parent(s) sending their children to private (and predominantly religious) schools.
Irrespective of the causes, however, we must not forget that for many of these students they are left without any recourse to legal protections, because the Commonwealth Sex Discrimination Act 1984, as well as the anti-discrimination laws in most states and territories, explicitly allows religious schools to actively mistreat LGBTIQ students. Such legislation is also unacceptable.
State or Territory of Residence
The final demographic category according to which I have analysed the survey results is the state or territory of residence:
New South Wales
- 37.4%[xl] reported education-related discrimination at some point
- 12.8%[xli] experienced at least one instance in the last 12 months
- 13.4%[xlii] experienced discrimination at a religious school or college
- 42.2%[xliii] reported education-related discrimination at some point
- 12.5%[xliv] experienced at least one instance in the last 12 months
- 14.3%[xlv] experienced discrimination at a religious school or college
- 43.1%[xlvi] reported education-related discrimination at some point
- 13.7%[xlvii] experienced at least one instance in the last 12 months
- 16.9%[xlviii] experienced discrimination at a religious school or college
- 41.7%[xlix] reported education-related discrimination at some point
- 16.6%[l] experienced at least one instance in the last 12 months
- 11.3%[li] experienced discrimination at a religious school or college
- 35.8%[lii] reported education-related discrimination at some point
- 16.4%[liii] experienced at least one instance in the last 12 months
- 14.9%[liv] experienced discrimination at a religious school or college
- 47.2%[lv] reported education-related discrimination at some point
- 24.1%[lvi] experienced at least one instance in the last 12 months
- 18.5%[lvii] experienced discrimination at a religious school or college
Australian Capital Territory
- 35.7%[lviii] reported education-related discrimination at some point
- 14.3%[lix] experienced at least one instance in the last 12 months
- 21.4%[lx] experienced discrimination at a religious school or college
- 38.1%[lxi] reported education-related discrimination at some point
- 14.3%[lxii] experienced at least one instance in the last 12 months
- 14.3% experienced discrimination at a religious school or college
These results were largely consistent across state and territory boundaries (thus lending weight to the overall figures, discussed earlier).
Interestingly, Tasmania reported the highest rates for both lifetime education-related discrimination, and discrimination in education in the last 12 months (the latter figure by a considerable margin). Despite the great strides made by the Apple Isle in the past 20 years, further progress is still needed.
On the other hand, and despite recording the lowest rate of life-time education-related discrimination (slightly less than South Australia), ACT respondents reported the highest rate of discrimination at a religious school or college. This is likely due to high rates of religious school enrolments in the ACT (noting that these schools are legally ‘entitled’ to discriminate against LGBTI students).
Question 4: If you feel comfortable, please provide an example of the discrimination you experienced in relation to education [Optional]:
This question allowed respondents to provide examples of the anti-LGBTIQ discrimination they had experienced and, once again, these comments are often confronting to read.
They are also depressing, considering the influential role that education plays in everyone’s lives – for far-too-many LGBTIQ people, that impact has been overwhelmingly negative rather than positive.
A lightly-edited[lxiii] version of the answers to this question – providing examples of homophobic, biphobic, transphobic and intersexphobic discrimination in relation to education, including school, TAFE and university – can be found at the following link:
question 4 examples of anti-LGBTIQ discrimination in education
From my perspective, a number of key themes emerge in these examples. One of the most common stories described a lack of relevant sexual health education, including:
“I asked my sexual education teacher in year 9 or 10 (can’t remember which), if we were going to be covering more than just heterosexual sex and relationships. And her response was something along the lines of “Well I don’t think those people deserve to exist.”
“Not being provided with education on same-sex safety in PDHPE, even upon request. And being told to just ‘not try it’ because there’s no ‘safe way’ to have sex with a person of the same gender.”
“improper sex education (teaching as if there is only hetero-intercourse) being told intercourse must have ‘penetration’ to be counted.”
“My high school HPE teacher was teaching sex education and wouldn’t answer any of my questions about lesbian sex and told me things like to stop being rude and threatening to send me to the deputy principal’s office.”
“I was pretty closet[ed] at school, but I frequently got in trouble in sex ed for challenging hetero and cis normative assumptions being made by the teacher. That included being yelled at, sent out of class and threatened with physical violence. They didn’t want it talked about that’s for sure.”
The absence of information left some to rely on (potentially unreliable) sources, like the internet:
“The sex-ed at high school was minimal. But for anyone who was not straight or cis-gendered, myself included, it didn’t exist. The internet became my best (but not always reliable) friend.”
“Another thing though, I noticed as a young bisexual, I never learnt in health class how to have safe sex with people my gender. I had to google it.”
Several respondents also described differential treatment of same-sex relationships at school:
“I go to a Catholic school and the teachers were happy with relationship between straight people, but my ex girlfriend and I were not allowed to even hug.”
“being reported to teachers for holding hands with my partner, being called into the student support teacher’s office and having her tell me that I would be happier in life if I was ‘having sex with a man’ instead of my girlfriend.”
“I wasn’t allowed to see my friends or girlfriend at recess of lunch. The school also rang my mum and my ex’s dad up and told them they were getting complaints about us hugging in the park. They told us we weren’t allowed to see each other at school. They made my ex go to the school psychologist because of it.”
This heartbreaking example shows just how poorly some same-sex relationships were treated:
“I went to [redacted] Anglican School, someone found out about my girlfriend who was at another Anglican school, rumours were spread and eventually the PE Teacher asked me to start changing in the disabled bathroom instead of the girls change room because it made the other girls uncomfortable and they didn’t want to have an incident. So I just kept forgetting to bring my PE gear and sat out most of the lessons getting misbehaviour notes and Friday detentions for not having my PE gear rather than have people talk about why I couldn’t use the girls’ change room.”
A number of people complained that they were unable to take their partners to their school formals:
“Had the option of 2 months of detention for skipping my formal because my partner was same sex or conform and take an opposite sex partner (my friends out of protest all skipped which I was so happy for).”
“Was forced into taking a female partner to the school end of year celebration, where people took their relationship partners, me and my boyfriend were made to take other female partners because it was ‘against the school policy and religion.”
For trans and non-binary students, the enforcement of binary school uniforms presented particular problems:
“Teachers forcing binary clothing options (girls only allowed to wear skirts, not slacks, and boys opposite), once again, detention for months until they realised I wasn’t going to budge on the subject.”
“Had to push hard to be allowed to wear my chosen uniform despite unisex uniform policies being DET required in NSW.”
“I wasn’t allowed to go to the bathroom in which I identified as. And… I was told to not come into school wearing the clothes I would like to present in and was demoted in my school musical because ‘I did not dance and sound like the gender I identify as.”
The ‘policing’ of bathrooms affected students and teachers alike:
“I was banned from using either bathrooms at school because I was transgender. Whenever I needed to go to the bathroom, I’d have to go ask for a key for the staff toilets at the office.”
“No gender-neutral toilets and general lack of supporting facilities. Teachers felt as though it was appropriate to send an email to the whole staff about my gender identity (and got it wrong), and then all of them felt as though they could openly discuss my gender with me, which honestly made me feel incredibly uncomfortable and my privacy invaded…”
“While being interviewed for a school, I was told that for my ‘safety and comfort, as well as the other students and staff’, I should use the single-stall disabled toilet, rather than the male (my chosen gender) toilets.”
The discrimination experienced by trans students and staff extended well beyond uniforms and bathrooms, including misgendering:
“I had a teacher constantly misgender me and feminise my name, then when I complained about it, she refused to teach me…”
“It was prior to coming out as transgender but I was referred to as a ‘stain on society’ and that queers like me deserve to ‘burn in hell.’”
“Bullying, misgendering and being told I would have to go in the girls group for a gender split day at school.”
“A few boys were making fun of my gender in maths class and the teacher did nothing about it, also in PE they say you have to go to one side if you’re a female and the other if you’re a male, being transgender I sat out until everyone started yelling at me.”
“Forming assessment in a gender-split way which forces me (non-binary person) to participate as part of the gender group assigned to me at birth. My data being void in statistics class because I answered ‘other’ on the preliminary gender question. Transphobic comments in lectures.”
“Filling out forms and listing my preferred name, including being outed on my first day by the wrong name being called.”
Bisexual students also faced ostracism:
“As a student, religious high school, sex ed. The topic of my sexuality (known at that time, and not much cared about by the student body beyond ‘hey, that exists’) was brought up by another student in relation to something. The teacher expressed that bisexuality is not real. On homework, tests, assignments, class discussion etc from that point on he would reaffirm this belief anytime he thought someone was acknowledging bisexuality, and would take marks off if he suspected someone thought it was real.”
Some parents shared stories of discrimination they, or their children, experienced because of their sexual orientation:
“As a young mum, I and my kids suffered other parents’ homophobia, eye balls rolling and turned backs. My kids had parents keep friends away from them, for parties, sleep overs etc. My name was mud.”
“Actually happened from being a lesbian mother. My daughter has two mothers and we are excluded from all the other parental social gatherings and most people move away from us when picking my daughter from school.”
“My son was bullied in year 7 when it got around that I’m gay. I complained to the school but no visible action was taken. We ended up changing schools. Both schools are Qld public schools.”
“Was not recognised as my son’s parent at public school in 2009.”
Homophobia, biphobia, transphobia and intersexphobia in schools can affect teachers, too:
“I was asked to leave the school because they discovered I was gay and were uncomfortable with me being around children.”
“As a teacher I was transferred by my employer from a small mining town as a solution to ongoing harassment for being gay.”
“I was asked to keep my status as a lesbian secret because the parents at the school may become abusive towards not only myself and my family, but the school community as a whole.”
“I’m working through applications to teach and update my gender and names through the DET portals, it’s impossible to do without calling the department and requesting personally, which they were still unable to do until is was escalated over the course of several months so that I could even BEGIN my application…”
“When I was teaching, at my last school, I was constantly bullied and harassed for being an openly gay teacher. The abuse got so bad that I had a mental breakdown and had to resign from teaching. It has taken years of therapy, that is still ongoing, to begin to recover from it.”
Some teachers specifically cited discrimination from religious schools:
“I had a long phone conversation with a music teacher at a Christian college all about offering me a job teaching singing there (one-to-one). The teacher was very enthusiastic and said it would simply need to approval of the school principal (I was very well qualified and very experienced). However, his reply came back that they would definitely not employ a transgender person.”
“As a gay man who teaches in a Catholic school I have to be very discreet about my true self. I am out to my friends but have to be careful with parents and the students. It breaks my heart each and every time I have to be vague about my partner of 8 years.”
“I was bullied in a job I held in a christian organisation. I wasn’t protected under the anti discrimination law because my lifestyle didn’t fit in with their christian values. I took the bullying and harassment to as far as I could. I ended up leaving the job because I couldn’t win.”
The most common type of story shared by survey respondents overall was discrimination against LGBTIQ students at religious schools:
“Catholic school in the 90s. Told teachers and headmasters about homophobia me and my friend received. We were told to act less girly (by the female deputy headmaster) so we’d fit in better. My friend was so horrified, he quit school that day, never to complete his education. I pressed on to finish year 12, but without my only friend.”
“I was given detention and threatened with suspension for revealing I was attracted to girls at a Christian high school. I was forced to endure hands-on prayer to try to rid me of the homosexual demons.”
“I was at a Christian private school in north Sydney, we had lessons in religion that focused on why being gay is wrong and how you can change.”
“The religious boarding school that I attended had explicit rules against homosexual students, which carried the threat of expulsion (a sanction that was imposed on a fellow student).”
“I attended a religious high school (2003-2007). Discrimination was daily, from schoolchildren and staff, and ranged from forcing me to pretend that I was a girl, to physical abuse, threats of rape & murder, theft, exclusion & a lot of reinforcement that I wasn’t normal. I got a boyfriend and pretended that I was a cis-gendered female to make it stop. I also self-harmed hundreds of times and tried to kill myself twice.”
“My friend goes to a Catholic school and is bisexual. Her music teacher gives her shit about being bisexual and says that she is sinning and she will be going to hell.”
“I’m a trans boy who use[d] to go to an all girls catholic high school. I was told not to come out by the school counsellor and that there was nothing to be done that could help me. I wasn’t aloud [sic] to wear the sports uniform which was shorts and was forced to wear the dress. I had many teachers comment on my short hair in a negative way.”
“Christian [redacted] Brisbane, as it was known as at the time of my attendance, is a homophobia ridden school. If you were believed to be gay you had no chance of a good education. Students were allowed to bully you because you could not go to the teachers as the school had a tradition of informing parents and outing unprepared kids. Even when you had the support of good teachers, which was rare in that place, they could do only so much because they could only protect you so far. I was lucky where a few good teachers convinced me to leave and demand a change of schools. They are the ones who helped save my life. I would not have survived another two years in the homophobic discriminatory hell hole and my parents would not have been able to handle the school outing their daughter (even years later coming out to them had a major impact).”
“Took part in a public speaking competition, wrote a speech on equal rights for LGBTQIA individuals. Was told “that isn’t a very [school name] topic”. (The school was an Anglican school in Sydney’s eastern suburbs). When I came out at school, not only students but also some teachers made very inappropriate comments to me. One staff member interrogated me about what kinds of sexual feelings I was having; I was 13 and felt very pressured and uncomfortable, I started crying. The staff member didn’t seem to see anything wrong with the questions they were asking.”
“My 11yr old niece had a mufty day at her catholic school. I painted a pair of white shoes in rainbow pride colours. With PRIDE in black marker on them. She loved them, showed them off to her teachers who told her they were not appropriate school wear. And from more comments from her adult teachers she was so upset she had taken them off some time during the day and kept them off until we left the school. She told me her teachers would look angry at her and when I came to collect her I was told to pick her up from outside school grounds from now on (all other parents picked their children up from outside the classroom doors).”
Anti-LGBTIQ prejudice was reported via religious instruction:
“I was kicked out of a compulsory scripture class because a “friend” told the teacher I was gay.”
“Kicked out of religion class for being transgender.”
“My religious education teacher stopped speaking to me directly and began speaking to me via the person next to me when I came out as gay in year 10.”
“Comments made during the Christian Perspectives program at my school; that gays are the product of a dysfunctional family, that when the Lord comes all of the sinners and the gays will be swallowed into a black hole.”
“[redacted] High School was not exactly a safe space for an open homosexual-male student. Student culture was very homophobic. There were no educational support programs for LGBTIQ students at the School. Many teachers were homophobic, especially the scripture teachers from Hillsong…”
School chaplains were also a source of homophobia, biphobia, transphobia and intersexphobia:
“I went to a public school and the school chaplain, who was obviously religious, was friendly towards me until she learned I was bisexual and pagan, then she avoided me and told people I was going around trying to “convert” people.”
“This is complicated because I was not out in high school, but I found addressing gender issues in counselling with a chaplain at a non-religious college to be soul-crushing and the chaplain was dismissive and ignorant.”
“At school we were taught that LGBT+ folk were diseased by our school chaplain. It was very isolating.”
Anti-LGBTIQ prejudice didn’t stop at school, with many respondents citing discrimination at university. This particularly affected trans people:
“I work as a lecturer/tutor, was asked not to reveal trans status to students for fear of a social media storm.”
“One of my university lecturers misgendered me in an assessment and accidentally outed me as trans to my supervisor. When I pulled her up on it she brushed it off as though it was nothing.”
“Uni won’t use my preferred name which I changed legally but since my deadname is still my legal first name they ignored my requests.”
“my more recent discrimination is not direct discrimination, it’s related to my uni using my legal name instead of my real name, and the thought of either getting called by my deadname or coming out freshly to every new person I met caused me tonnes of stress and meant I never went to an entire subjects tutorial sessions, and I failed that subject, probably as a result of that.”
“Asked my supervising tutor for a reference for an LGBT scholarship. She refused because she didn’t think it was appropriate.”
“At a more immediate, interpersonal level, discrimination against LGBTIQ students at [redacted] can be still more overt. In one instance, I and some friends were gathered in a common courtyard of the university celebrating ‘Wear It Purple’ day. A member of non-academic staff approached us and challenged our right to be there without University approval. For context, this was a large area in which some fifty students were gathered in small groups having lunch. When we refused to move on, the staff member sought out a priest on campus, who harangued us about the fact that the University is built on church land and we cannot be there. This instance is not uncommon to the University – at times, LGBTIQ students are at risk of being confronted and publicly policed for the slightest representation of their LGBTIQ identity in a common space.”
The following examples of homophobia, biphobia, transphobia and intersexphobia seemed to sum up the experience of many:
“when i was in grade 7 my teacher would tell the class about how he thought that gays were perverted and wrong. He did this on multiple occasions during lessons, including a time when he told us all that he wrote countless letters to the government to discourage them from legalising same-sex marriage. At the time I identified as a lesbian and he was one of the main reasons I developed a strong fear of being outed.”
“Rather than in-your-face discrimination, it is continually giving you messages that gay = bad or sinner. Plus all other people are included in daily conversation/engagement, but the queers are made invisible as though we do not even exist – e.g. no mention is made that we even exist, nor of our loving relationships, which are made out to not even exist. Promotion of invisibility and non-representation effectively invalidates and demoralises us. To be respected fully, you must be acknowledged as first existing, and secondly, to be of equal worth and standing to everyone else – this cannot happen if you are made to feel invisible.”
“…Not being allowed to mention sexuality or gender other than straight in assemblies or other mass school events. Sex education only catering for straight people. The assumption that everyone in the school is straight. Lack of support for queer people and the feeling that queer people should stay quiet about who they are and not mention love, whereas straight people are able to mention their love life and talk about it openly.”
“There was an incident that occurred and my best friend at the time told my deputy principal that I was gay, so when I came in to be asked about what happened he asked if I was gay, I said yes and he replied with we can send you to the councillor [sic] to get that fixed.”
What really needs to be fixed is an education system that seems to foster anti-LGBTIQ discrimination rather than inclusion, and a love of learning – for everyone.
The results of these four questions have confirmed that homophobic, biphobic, transphobic and intersexphobic discrimination in education is widespread, and has a significant impact on lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, intersex and queer Australians.
This includes 2 in every 5 LGBTIQ people reporting lifetime experience of such discrimination, with a shocking 1 in 7 reporting at least one instance in the last 12 months.
It also includes almost 15% of respondents experiencing adverse treatment at a religious school or college, which is particularly concerning given most states and territories permit these institutions to discriminate on the basis of sexual orientation and gender identity, leaving LGBTIQ students and staff without any legal protections.
As with previous results, this survey has also found that the impact of education-related discrimination is particularly felt by trans, intersex and queer people, younger people, and Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people. Programs that are implemented to address anti-LGBTIQ discrimination in education should pay particular attention to the needs of these groups.
As noted at the beginning of this post, this has been the fourth in my series of six articles reporting the results of my The State of Homophobia, Biphobia and Transphobia survey.
The remaining two articles, which will focus on discrimination in employment, and health and other areas, will be published later this month.
If you would like to receive updates of these results, please sign up to this blog: on mobile, at the bottom of this page, or on desktop at the top right-hand corner of the screen.
If this post has raised any issues for you, you can contact:
- QLife, Australia’s national telephone and web counselling and referral service for LGBTI people. Freecall: 1800 184 527, Webchat: qlife.org.au (3pm to midnight every day)
[i] The previous posts can be found here:
Part 1: Verbal Harassment and Abuse
Part 2: Physical Abuse or Violence
Part 3: Where Discriminatory Comments Occur and Their Impact
[ii] See: Back to School. Back to Discrimination for LGBT Students and Teachers
[iii] Students cannot be discriminated against in Tasmania or Queensland. Teachers cannot be discriminated against in Tasmania, and operate under a ‘don’t ask’ don’t tell’ scheme in Queensland.
[iv] 655 people responded to question 2: 236 yes/419 no.
[v] 661 people responded to question 3: 242 yes/419 no.
[vi] 322 people responded to question 1: 135 yes/187 no.
[vii] 48 respondents.
[viii] 35 respondents.
[ix] 636 people responded to question 1: 239 yes/397 no.
[x] 60 respondents.
[xi] 88 respondents.
[xii] 517 people responded to question 1: 206 yes/311 no.
[xiii] 86 respondents (for both questions 2 and 3).
[xiv] 369 people responded to question 1: 192 yes/177 no.
[xv] 93 respondents.
[xvi] 62 respondents.
[xvii] 12 people responded to question 1: 11 yes/4 no. Note that, given the small sample size, these percentages should be treated with some caution.
[xviii] 5 respondents.
[xix] 4 respondents.
[xx] 487 people responded to question 1: 227 yes/260 no.
[xxi] 108 respondents.
[xxii] 83 respondents.
[xxiii] The rates of trans people experiencing discrimination at religious schools or colleges was actually comparable to the overall cohort (16.8% versus 14.8%).
[xxiv] 43 respondents total, with 18 yes to question 1 and 7 yes to question 2.
[xxv] 57 respondents total, with 34 yes to question 1 and 14 yes to question 2.
[xxvi] 123 respondents total, with 66 yes to question 1 and 35 yes to question 2.
[xxvii] 186 respondents total, with 98 yes to question 1 and 51 yes to question 2.
[xxviii] 58 people responded to question 1: 29 yes/29 no.
[xxix] 11 respondents.
[xxx] 13 respondents.
[xxxi] 879 people responded to question 1: 381 yes/498 no.
[xxxii] 153 respondents.
[xxxiii] 431 people responded to question 1: 170 yes/261 no.
[xxxiv] 61 respondents.
[xxxv] 275 people responded to question 1: 102 yes/173 no.
[xxxvi] 25 respondents.
[xxxvii] 35 people responded to question 1: 6 yes/29 no. Note that, given the small sample size, these percentages should be treated with some caution.
[xxxviii] 2 respondents.
[xxxix] There may be a ‘recency effect’ in some of these answers, with people who left school decades previously potentially forgetting or downplaying anti-LGBTIQ they may have experienced. It is also possible that the increased openness of LGBTIQ in the school environment – which is obviously a positive overall – is also being met by an increased ‘backlash’ from people with homophobic, biphobic, transphobic and intersexphobic views.
[xl] 537 people responded to question 1: 201 yes/336 no.
[xli] 69 respondents.
[xlii] 72 respondents.
[xliii] 391 people responded to question 1: 165 yes/226 no.
[xliv] 49 respondents.
[xlv] 56 respondents.
[xlvi] 248 people responded to question 1: 107 yes/141 no.
[xlvii] 34 respondents.
[xlviii] 42 respondents.
[xlix] 151 people responded to question 1: 63 yes/88 no.
[l] 25 respondents.
[li] 17 respondents.
[lii] 134 people responded to question 1: 48 yes/86 no.
[liii] 22 respondents.
[liv] 20 respondents.
[lv] 108 people responded to question 1: 51 yes/57 no.
[lvi] 26 respondents.
[lvii] 20 respondents.
[lviii] 56 people responded to question 1: 20 yes/36 no.
[lix] 8 respondents.
[lx] 12 respondents.
[lxi] 21 people responded to question 1: 8 yes/13 no. Note that, given the small sample size, these percentages should be treated with some caution.
[lxii] 3 respondents for both question 2 and question 3.
[lxiii] In this context, lightly-edited includes:
-Removing identifying information
-Removing potentially defamatory comments and
-Removing offensive (for example, racist and even transphobic) remarks.
I have also corrected some spelling/grammatical mistakes for ease of reading.